|Cale 1994||52 IS & non-IS managers in 25 firms||Less
than 1/10 of companies had written policies on testing SSs; about ¼
had unwritten polices; about 6/10 had no policies. Documentation standards
similar. About 70% strongly agreed that lack of testing standards produced
serious problems. None disagreed. Reluctant to impose standards if developed
by person for own use. More likely as used by others, if updates database,
or as size grows. 90% would require testing for development lasting one
week; 100% if one month.
|Cragg & King ||FTF
interviews with 17, questionnaire survey of 14, N=31.
|1/10 said firm had formal policies. 9/10 said no one in firm responsible for SS development.|
|Floyd; Walls, & Marr ||72 end users in 4 corporations||1/7
had development policies, 2/5 implementation policies; 2/3 development
policies. 1/3 required approvals only for important models. Almost all:
any policy existing initiated by workgroup. All functions had some policies;
modification policies most common. None reported comprehensive standards
for all models. None knew of disasters in their firms. Clan-based control
|Galletta & Hufnagel ||107 MIS executives in mail survey||End
user computing, not just spreadsheeting. Restrictions on application development?
23% rule, 58% guideline, 28% donít address; compliance level if address:
27% full compliance, 58% partial compliance; 15% ignore. Post-development
audit requirement? 15% rule, 34% guideline, 52% donít address; compliance
level if address: 10% full compliance, 49% partial compliance; 41% ignore.
11% new of a comprehensive corporate policy; only 1/3 of these could be
located it in written form.
|Hendry & Green ||Ethnographic interviews with 11 SS developers||Modeled
after Nardi & Miller  but added a part in which the interviewer
went over a specific SS with the developer. Generally repeated Nardi &
Miller, but noted pattern of difficulty in comprehending parts of SSs.
Describing efforts to build error-free models by taking specific actions.
Later, Hendry  noted that only three were "highly numerate" in carefully
building models; Green  said that comprehensive code inspection during
a testing phase was not part of the "spreadsheet culture."
|Nardi & Miller ||Ethnographic interviews with 11 SS developers||Extensive
joint development mixed programming & domain expertise; sometimes other
built difficult parts; other times other checked for reasonableness, gave
guidance. Considerable evidence of taking care in development; conscious
of errors; spend considerable time debugging. Reasonableness, cross-footings,
spot-checking of values, examining formulas. Gave one example of comprehensive
code inspectionóthe subject was taking over a SS developed by another.
|Speier & Brown ||Study of 3 departments||Study
of overall EUC, not just SS. Interviewed managers of 3 departments in a
firm: financial operations, marketing and sales. Questionnaire interviews
of 22 end users. Company has few corporate rules beyond backup, which is
not enforced. Managers differed in concerns. End users differed by department
in awareness of norms and perceptions of benefits. Mostly unwritten norms.
Underscores importance of department perspective.
Copyright 1997 Raymond Panko.